Category Archives: Mobile Development

JavaOne: A Look Back

I am now home from my Bay area adventure at Java One. This was the first conference I’ve attended since 2005, and is by far the largest conference I’ve ever been a part of. I was blown away by the scale of this one. The downtown core was plastered with Oracle and Java signs. Buses dipped in oracle insignias roamed the streets constantly, and you couldn’t walk a block without seeing at least 5 people brandishing Oracle swag. (I quite liked the back pack that they provided).

In addition to the sessions (which I’ll get to next), there was a steady stream of entertainment events for the benefit of conference attendees. Union square (and a few other locations) were blocked off for music performances; and then there was the “fan appreciation” event featuring Pearl Jam and Kings of Leon. Doesn’t sound like nerd conference, does it?

The Sessions

My reason for attending was the sessions. From Sunday to Thursday my schedule was jam packed with talks about topics ranging from JavaFX to MongoDB and a smattering of Java ME, iOS, and Android development. For any given one hour slot, I had to choose between 2 or 3 talks that I really wanted to see, and another 8 or 9 that would have been interesting. Being able to hear about new technologies directly from the people who are behind it is awesome. It imparts a kind of understanding that cannot be achieved through a book or reading blog posts.

This conference has sparked a fire in me to seek out more conferences like this, similar to the way that a my first exposure to Disneyland led me to look for other parks that offer the same experience. In fact, the way a child reacts to his first experience at Disneyland is an accurate way to describe my reaction to the conference schedule.

The Topics

Currently I have a number of desktop applications that have been developed in Swing and have been deployed as applications on OS X. Therefore, I was most interested in learning about Swing’s successor, JavaFX, and how to deploy applications on OS X. The conference was heavy on JavaFX (yay!) but a little light on OS X. There were two talks on OS X deployment, but sadly I could only attend the first one (which way a fantastic talk, by Scott Kovatch). Nonetheless, I have left the conference with stockpiles of new ammunition for building applications with JavaFX. In fact, I’m really exciting about using JavaFX and Scene Builder (the GUI editor for JavaFX) to start building some business applications at work.

The demos provided by some of the community served as proof of concept to me that JavaFX is something special. E.g. Gerrit Grunwald’s (@hansolo_) set of gauges in the JFXtras project show what can be achieved with a little time and artistic flair.

On the OS X front, it looks like we’re all set to go now with the Mac App store. The javafxpackager tool provides the ability to easily deploy applications as native bundles. This is a new direction for Java (up until now, they have been recommending Web Start distribution), and I think it is a good one.

Another topic that I am keenly interested in is mobile development (iOS and Android). Last year’s java one included a demonstration of JavaFX running on an iPad, but then nothing more was heard. This year they announced that JavaFX will be available for Java7 SE Embedded, and they had a conference scheduler application running on an small, embedded device in a kiosk at various stations in the conference. But there were no announcements about JavaFX for iPad or Android. The announcement of its availability on embedded devices is a step in the right direction, though, as this is a prerequisite for running on the major embedded platforms.

I did attend one talk (actually 2 talks on the same topic) on Java for iOS and Android. The CodenameOne project (that I’ve blogged about before) is a java library and framework for building cross-platform mobile apps (i.e. deployable on Android, iOS, Blackberry, and J2ME). This looks very promising.

When I had reached my saturation point on JavaFX, I wandered across to the Parc55 building for a couple of Java Enterprise Edition talks. I attended a talk on the new Project Avatar, which provides a thin-server approach to web applications (i.e. most view logic and layout is handled on the client in javascript, and the server just sends over the data). This project looks quite interesting, both in concept and execution. The concept coincides with much of the more recent development I’ve been doing with Xataface.

The last talk of the conference that I attended was on NoSQL and scaling strategies. There, Nike’s director of engineering discussed some of their architectures for handling heavy traffic with NoSQL databases and Data grids.

My head is full. My notebook is full. Now to put all of this new knowledge into practice.

CodenameOne Project : Finally Java on the iPhone

I periodically monitor the progress of multi-platform development solutions for the mobile space. As a Java developer, I’m especially interested in solutions to bring Java to the iPhone. Even better would be a Java solution that will run on all of the major devices (Android, iOS, and Blackberry).

CodenameOne is the most promising project to appear in this space so far. It includes an API, a GUI designer, and a build/deployment solution so that you can develop your application in 100% pure Java then a native application on most major platforms (including iOS, Android, RIM, Windows Phone 7, and J2ME). The API forms a thin abstraction over the native libraries on each platform so many components are heavy-weight. This allows the applications to take on the native look and feel of the host system. The underlying mechanics work differently for each platform. E.g. on Android, the Java runs on the built-in VM, whereas iPhone builds use XMLVM to convert the Java bytecode to native code.

So far I haven’t done very much with it (just discovered it last night). I downloaded the Netbeans plugin which adds the ability to create a “Codename One Project” within Netbeans. This includes a GUI editor with a few themes to get you jump started with some common application structures. My initial test application was just a default tabbed application. It took me 2 minute to create it.
The Netbeans plugin includes an iPhone emulator so that you can test the application right inside netbeans. In my initial tests, this seemed to work quite well. Building the application was a single click.

I’m a little wary of the build process, as it occurs on their server. Apparently the Java is compiled to byte-code on your local machine, then it is sent to their server to have it converted to a native application. This requires that you sign up for a free account. After signing up for an account, and logging in, it said that I could perform up to 80 builds before upgrading. It didn’t say whether this is 80 per month, 80 per year, or 80 total — but I didn’t look into it too deeply. The build process took a little while (more than 20 minutes — I just requested the build, then waited 20 minutes and went to bed). In the morning the build was ready for download.

I was quite impressed with the file size. It was only 6.9 megs. Yes this was just a simple app with 4 tabs, some buttons, and forms, but this size is still quite good. Especially considering that it includes all code necessary from the Java libraries in order to run. I was expecting it to come in around 50 megs, as I fully expected the whole JVM to be statically compiled into it. Luckily, it looks like they use some optimizations to remove dead and unused code before building it.


Pros: Java. Support for most major devices. Good documentation. Good IDE support (both Netbeans and Eclipse). Easy, one-click-builds, Support for signing so you can submit apps to their respective app stores. Open Source (GPL 2. With Classpath Exception — free for commerical/non-commericial use)

Cons: Building is done in the cloud. This is convenient but it opens the door to problems in that you are now dependent upon them. They say that you can build it yourself and that there is information on the net on how to do this – but they offer no support for it.

Hopefully I’ll have the opportunity to build my first app with this in the next couple of weeks.


  • Codename One Website
  • How CodenameOne Works (a Stackoverflow discussion).
  • XMLVM – The underlying tool that allows them to cross-compile Java to native code.
  • LWUIT – A toolkit for user interfaces on mobile devices of which CodenameOne is a descendent.

JavaFX Has Finally Arrived

JavaFX 2.1/2.2 finally gives me the tools that I need to build the applications that I want to build. This release provides 2 missing pieces that make all the difference:

  1. Scene Builder – Finally a good graphical GUI tool for Java. This makes building GUIs almost as easy as Apple’s Interface Builder.
  2. JavaFXPackager Native Bundles – Now you can instantly build native application bundles for Mac, Windows, and Linux.

The only question is whether these features are too late to the party to make a difference. Sun dropped the ball with desktop Java a long time ago. It survived the past 10 years almost entirely on the backs of JavaEE (i.e. web/server programming) and, more recently, Android. Desktop application developers have been fending for themselves for the most part.

Now we have the tools that we need to make some serious applications. The upcoming release of JDK 1.7 will also finally enable Java developers to get their applications into the Mac App store. Currently the bundle size for an application is quite large (over 50 megs for my hello world application test), because it needs to contain the entire Java Runtime Environment, but this should improve over time as we get better at compressing and splicing the JRE to suite specific purposes).

I downloaded Netbeans 7.2, JavaFX Scene Builder, and JavaFX 2.1 (included with JDK 1.7.0u6) to try to build a simple web browser application. This proved to be super easy, and it gives me a lot of faith in the power of technologies such as FXML (an XML format for representing user interfaces). Some key points that impressed me during my short test:

  1. Netbeans now has an option to create a Swing-wrapped JavaFX project. This was previously a real pain, since JavaFX has lots of cool toys, but wouldn’t give you a full desktop experience. E.g. You still needed swing to get menus at the top of the screen for Mac. Swing still does a lot of things well, so if you wanted to use JavaFX, you would generally need to rig up the Swing FX Panel yourself. Having this as a default option for a project is nice. No more messing around.

  2. Using a controller for the FXML file makes it very easy to achieve full separation of the view and logic. The @FXML annotation also makes it incredibly easy to reference elements of the FXML UI from the controller. Attaching events for controls was quite simple.

In order to truly be successful, JavaFX still needs to get a mobile presence. It currently doesn’t run on Android or iPhone (despite demonstrations to the contrary at previous JavaOne conferences). If they can somehow port it to these platforms, I think it will really take off.

Exploring the HTML/CSS Mobile Toolkit Landscape

I’m in the process of developing a mobile interface to Xataface so I’ve been experimenting with different toolkits to help with the UI. I have worked with jqTouch in the past (to create the Web Lite TV iPhone/iPad interface) and found it mostly good, but a little bit heavy, and also buggy when you get into the fine details. (It may have improved since then).

Apple’s Dashcode is also quite impressive for developing UIs in a more WYSIWYG fashion, but I felt a little trapped inside their box and unable to customize things in the way I wanted to, especially when developing apps that needs to generate the UI dynamically – not just populating data to a static layout.

So, going into this, I wasn’t entirely happy with my toolkit. Let the exploration begin for better mobile HTML/CSS toolkits:


First stop: iScroll. iScroll, in my opinion, is a major breakthrough in HTML/CSS application development on mobile touch devices. It is the first library to allow good scrolling of the content of any HTML tag. Outside of iScroll, you couldn’t just scroll the contents of a div whose CSS declares that it should be scrollable… even iframes wouldn’t scroll.

Major step forward… but not a complete toolkit. It doesn’t provide any of the familiar nav bars and buttons that users expect in a native app… that is simply beyond the scope of the iScroll project. So we’ll use this as a tie-down point in our expedition, and we’ll proceed to explore toolkits that incorporate iScroll.

Stop 1: appML

appML uses its own custom markup language for web applications, called appML. It is built on jqTouch and iScroll and serves as a framework for building native looking mobile apps (native to iPhone at least). The demos are quite stunning so I decided to give it a go.

First of all, I have to say that the developers are doing a fantastic job on this framework. The UI is very appealing and the markup they have developed is quite intuitive. However this project is still in alpha phase and it has the feel of a project that is still taking shape and forming direction. I like the fact that it is built on jQuery, but it is still a little bulky, and the API is still a little rough around the edges. The show stopper for me was that it isn’t currently possible to load pages using AJAX. This severely limits the types of applications that can be produced. I’m sure that this will be addressed in future versions, but for now I’m forced to move on.

Stop 2: ChocolateChip-UI

ChocolateChip-UI (CHUI) is a real gem of a toolkit. The project has a small, well-defined scope that makes for a clean and polished API. It is well documented, slim, and easy to extend. It defines its own markup language (WAML) similar to the way that appML does, but it is much better documented, and cleanly implemented. It seems to closely mirror the official iOS cocoa API, providing simple tags for all of the major views, containers, and buttons. It is self contained (doesn’t use jQuery or any other bulky libraries) which is nice (I generally still use jQuery in my apps anyways, but it’s nice to have the option of leaving it out).

It is hard to express just how good this toolkit is in relation to all others that I have tried so far. If we were to give any of the other toolkits a 10 out of 10, then Chocolate Chip UI deserves a 50 out of 10.

Why do you need an app for that?

I have recently stopped using the Facebook and Mail apps for my iPad and iPhone in favour of the HTML equivalents offered through Safari. The reasons: Mobile-optimized web applications are now as good, or even better in many cases, as their native app equivalents. In the case of the Mail app, I have found that the gmail mobile version has a superior search feature and is much faster in loading my messages. For facebook, I just found the app limited and more buggy than the HTML equivalent.

In general, I’ve come to the conclusion that if you’re going to build a native app for something, you’d better have a good reason – and good reasons are becoming fewer as HTML browsers improve their support for HTML5. The only valid reason at this point is a requirement for significant client-side processing – e.g. a 3-D game. But as WebGL matures even this will be quite possible in HTML.

So here are some reasons for developing your mobile applications in HTML5:

  1. Increased productivity in most cases over development of native apps.
  2. Real standards-based, cross-platform support so you can write it once and have it work on all major platforms (Android, iPhone, Blackberry, etc…).
  3. True freedom of deployment. You are not locked into Apple’s (or the next would-be gatekeeper’s) store or subject to their sovereign choice of what can and cannot be installed.

The remaining reasons why you may still need to develop a native app:

  1. You want to use a platform specific feature that isn’t available through the web api. E.g. the accelerometer, or the contacts list, or push notifications, GPS, etc..
  2. You need more client-side processing power than you can harness through the web.

The compelling reasons to want to develop a native app:

  1. To get it into the app store and maybe make some money.
  2. Toolkits (e.g. XCode/Interface builder) are developed and promoted specifically for making apps target a specific platform. This can make it seem easier to break into the market since there are lots of learning resources on how to use these tools.

The biggest challenge right now facing HTML mobile developers is that the tools are less promoted and more scattered. This is because the major stakeholders (e.g. Apple) have a significant interest in getting you to develop your app natively so that it will be exclusively available for their platform, and they will get a cut of any revenue through their store model. If you look, however, there are tools out there for building slick HTML mobile apps that look and feel very much like native apps. Some examples include:

  1. Sencha Touch
  2. jqTouch

And there are more where those came from. If you still want to develop a native app and you would prefer to work with open technologies like HTML and Javascript you may want to look at Appcelerator which provides tools to develop applications in Javascript, HTML, and CSS that can be compiled into native apps all the major smart phones (e.g. Android, iOS).

iPad: Initial impressions

Just picked up an iPad today and am very impressed – not only by its potential for changing the world, but for its immediate utility. Here are just a few things that I notice after playing with it for 4 or 5 hours:

  1. When reading, scrolling down a page is quite hard on the eyes (you get kind of car sick doing that too much). I notice this particularly because of the extensive use of side “sweeping” in iPad applications. E.g. the Comic book apps allow you to read a comic one page at a time, and then just flip the page to see the next cells. This is very easy on the eyes. The Financial Times app also makes use of side scrolling to read its news paper – less scrolling down – more sweeping across. This makes for a much more pleasent reading experience. Look to see much more of this style in the future as more devices like the iPad hit the market.

  2. It looks like there’s nothing for sale yet in iBooks (probably a delay because we’re in Canada). However its extensive selection of free titles (generally classics that have passed their copyright expiration dates) makes for lots of choice still. I started to read “The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government” by Jefferson Davis (the president of the Southern Confederacy during the American Civil War) this afternoon to complement the a book I’m currently reading about Abraham Lincoln and his cabinet. The iBooks experience is almost as good as reading a real book. It makes it very easy to flip pages, change font size, and skip to any part of the book. I appreciate it’s little status message ever present at the bottom right corner indicating how many pages are left in the current chapter.

  3. The Kindle App is also quite good, and currently provides a much larger selection of books to purchase. (iBooks appeared to have zero books available for sale). The only problem is that they make it damn hard to purchase any books. The Kindle app has a button to “Shop for books from the store”. But this just takes you to the amazon web site which is not optimized in any way for mobile devices or the iPad. After logging in, entering credit card info, and finally finishing the purchase, it downloaded a book on iPad software development into Kindle. They really need to build the purchase mechanism into the iPad to make it competitive with iBooks (which allows you to simply click on a book and purchase it on the spot – and be reading it in seconds).

  4. Comics! The iPad is a savior for the fledgling comic industry. Reading comics on this thing feels very natural. I downloaded both the Marvel Comics app and the Transformers Comics app, which allow you to read comics in a rich, full-screen, environment. They offer some free comics and have others for sale. I purchased one issue of Transformers for $1.99 and it was as simple as one click and I’m reading it.

  5. News papers are now multi-media. I downloaded the free Financial Times app which is a UK news paper. Reading it was much like reading a news paper, giving you the same ability to read the articles in columns and scan to the right to see other stories. They have embedded videos associated with some articles, and tapping on the video displays the high quality video right inside the window (as expected, but still really cool). I think we’re just hitting the tip of the iceberg in our exploration of how different media can be melded together to enhance the user experience.

  6. HTML5 Support – After reading about iPad’s rich support for HTML 5 it occurs to me that Apple is doing the world a favour by taking a hard stand against browser extensions like Flash and Java (sad to say). The market share of the iPhone OS (estimated at over 318 million units between iphone, ipod, and ipad) is so big that Apple is able to single-handedly force us to endure a little pain for the greater good in the long run. HTML has been moving at a snails pace since it’s introduction and this has been a sort of chicken-and-egg problem, whereby developers don’t use any cutting edge features because of lack of browser support, and the standard hasn’t progressed very fast because there hasn’t been the demand for cutting-edge features from the development side. Apple is changing that with the powerful HTML 5 support in Safari for iPhone and iPad. Finally HTML/CSS/Javascript is at the point where you can create a full desktop application using open web standards. In addition this model for networked applications is much cleaner and safer than previous strategies (such as Java and Flash applets) because they truly run inside a sandbox where they cannot harm your computer.

The Apple war against browser extensions (Flash and Java applets) reminds me in some ways of the American civil war and the related end to slavery. Just as slavery was entrenched into the culture of the south to the point where they could not willingly let the practice go without experiencing major economic hardships, we, as computer users, have become dependent on proprietary browser plugins like flash to make up for features that ought to have been built into the browser to begin with. Just as it took a bloody war (or some southerners might say a Northern dictator) to force the issue on slavery, it takes a dictator from the South to force us into the future of computing for our own good, when we lacked the will to make the leap on our own.

I’m very excited to start developing HTML 5 applications, now that there is a reliable and stable platform to target: the iPad!